Alcohol dependence is a common psychiatric disorder with lifetime prevalence estimates of 7% to 12.5% in most Western countries.    Alcohol dependence is uncommon in countries with large Muslim populations, and is most common in European countries. Men outnumber women by a ratio of more than 2 to 1, although female alcoholism is probably under-reported. In the US, a recent estimate of the 1-year population prevalence of alcohol use disorders (abuse or dependence) was 8.5%.  About 8 million people currently meet diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence in the US.  In primary care settings, the prevalence of alcohol use disorders ranges from 20% to 36%.  It is estimated that alcohol causes a significant global disease mortality burden, accounting for 3.2% of global deaths. Studies suggest that alcohol-related problems, as measured by disability-adjusted life years lost, are greatest in resource-poor countries.