Fissured tongue is a common, benign clinical condition of unknown etiology usually affecting the dorsum of the tongue.  On physical examination, numerous grooves or fissures are seen on the dorsal surface of the tongue; these are usually a few millimeters in depth. They may occur in isolated areas of the tongue or may cover the entire dorsum.
Hairy tongue is a common, benign clinical condition with the hairy appearance on the dorsal tongue caused by keratin retention on the top of the filiform papillae. The color of the elongated papillae may range from yellow to brown-black. There may be a difference in the color of the elongated papillae due to the exogenous staining from different foods, tobacco, and bacteria that are chromogenic. 
Geographic tongue is a common, benign clinical condition that affects the lateral margins, the tip, and the dorsal part of the tongue. Rarely, it may occur at other sites within the mouth, such as the buccal mucosa, the labial mucosa, and the soft palate. Geographic tongue presents as well-delineated areas of erythema with raised white circinate edges. 
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