Last Updated: 2013-12-03
Affects approximately 75% of pregnant women.
Typically begins between the fourth and seventh week after the last menstrual period and resolves in the second trimester.
Etiology remains unclear. There is some evidence that it is related to hormone levels of human chorionic gonadotropin and estrogen.
Hyperemesis gravidarum represents the most severe form of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. While there is lack of consensus of definition, most agree that clinical features include persistent vomiting, volume depletion, ketosis, electrolyte disturbances, and weight loss.
Initial therapy should be conservative. This may include nonpharmacologic treatments such as diet modification, emotional support, ginger, and acupressure.
Severe cases may require hospitalization, intravenous fluids, antiemetics, corticosteroids, and total parenteral nutrition.
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