Last Updated: 2013-03-18
Tear film hyperosmolality, tear film instability, and/or ocular surface inflammation often result from aqueous deficiencies or evaporative abnormalities.
May be caused by various systemic diseases and medications.
Symptoms do not often correlate with signs.
Slit-lamp examination and tear testing can help with diagnosis.
Management strategies include ocular surface lubrication, tear production stimulation, inflammatory factor inhibition, and ocular surface protection.
Dry eye (stained with rose bengal)
Private collection of Dr Jonathan Smith and Dr Philip Severn; used with permission
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