Caused by activation of jaw muscles leading to grinding and/or clenching of the teeth.
Etiologic factors are mainly dependent on CNS function (stress, emotions, personality, sleep regulation, autonomic nervous system) rather than on peripheral nervous system function or dental morphology and occlusion.
The condition covers a continuum, from simple cases that may require no treatment to complex cases requiring consideration of differential diagnosis and extensive rehabilitation.
Primary types of bruxism include sleep-related and awake bruxism. Secondary types can be associated with Parkinson disease or oromandibular manifestations of dyskinesias and dystonias.
Can result in tooth wear; fracture of dental restorations; muscle hypertrophy; tense, painful jaw muscles; headache; toothache; disturbance of bed partner's sleep; and reduction in overall quality of life.
Diagnosis is based mainly on history and physical exam, but ambulatory EMG or polysomnographic studies are needed for definitive diagnosis.
Treatment is symptomatic and includes different types of oral splints, cognitive behavioral approaches or physical therapy (counseling, biofeedback, contingent stimulation, relaxation, hypnosis), and, rarely, short-term clonazepam.
Severely worn dentition due to bruxism
From the collection of Dr Peter Svensson