Progressive disease state characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible.
Suspected in patients with a history of smoking, occupational and environmental risk factors, or a personal or family history of chronic lung disease.
Presents with progressive shortness of breath, wheeze, cough, and sputum production, including hemoptysis.
Diagnostic tests include PFTs, CXR, chest CT scan, oximetry, and ABG analysis.
Patients should be encouraged to stop smoking and be vaccinated against viral influenza and Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Treatment options include bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and systemic corticosteroids.
Long-term oxygen therapy improves survival in severe COPD.