Common symptoms include persistent low mood, loss of interest and enjoyment, sleep and appetite changes, guilt or self-criticism, poor concentration, and reduced energy.
Affects 5% to 10% of patients in the primary care setting.
Risk factors include prior depression and a family history of depression. Recent bereavement, stress, or medical illness may contribute.
For screening and diagnosis, self-rating forms are helpful, but clinical diagnosis is essential. Positive screening should trigger full history, mental status exam, treatment, and follow-up.
Most patients respond well to treatment with antidepressants, psychotherapy, or a combination of both.
Suicidal ideation can occur before and peak during treatment, so early close follow-up is advised.