Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of bronchiolitis; nearly every child has been infected by 2 years of age.
Seasonal outbreaks occur worldwide, during winter months.
Characterized by cough, wheeze, respiratory distress, and hypoxia.
Most episodes are mild and self-limited.
Treatment is mostly supportive: supplemental oxygen, nasal and pulmonary toilet, respiratory support, nutritional support.
High-risk groups for severe illness include infants with a history of prematurity, chronic lung disease, complex congenital heart disease, and immunocompromise.
Immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab is available for high-risk groups.
Air trapping and peribronchial cuffing
From the personal collections of Melvin L. Wright, DO and Giovanni Piedimonte, MD